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Individualisierung basiert auf der Vorstellung, dass jede bzw. jeder Lernende einzigartige Interessen und zurückliegende Lernerfahrungen hat. Daher ermöglicht ein individuelles Unterrichtsprogramm für Lernende Flexibilität bei den Unterrichtsmethoden und Motivierungsstrategien, um diesen individuellen Unterschieden gerecht zu werden.
________________________________________ Kulik & Kulik (1980). Individualised College Teaching
- Programmed learning - Computer-assisted instruction - Total system of self-paced learning: Keller's personalized System of instruction (!!!) and Postlethwait's Audio-Tutorial Approach
Bangert, Kulik & Kulik (1983). Individualized Systems of Instruction in Secondary Schools
It covers only individualized systems of instruction that share such common features as division of work into units, use of "learning activity packages," individual work at the student's own rate, and formative testing for student mastery of each unit of work.
The review thus examines individualized systems like - Individually Prescribed Instruction, or IPI (Glaser & Rosner, 1975); - the Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs, or PLAN (Flanagan, Shanner, Brudner, & Marker, 1975); and - Keller's Personalized System of Instruction, or PSI (Keller, 1968).
The review does not cover other approaches to teaching that areal so designed to accommodate to differences among learners: ability-grouped classes, non-graded classes, and open classrooms; programmed instruction, computer-based teaching, and audio-visually mediated instruction; or individualized assignments, learning contracts, and individual project.
Waxman, Wang, Anderson & Walberg (1985). Synthesis of Research on the Effects of Adaptive Education
Adaptive programs use a variety of curriculums and instructional strategies in many types of classroom settings. These include: - Mastery learning - Cooperative teams - Individual tutorials - Large-small-group instructional approaches
The program hat to contain at least one of the following characteristics of adaptive education:
1. Instruction is based on the assessed capabilities of each student. 2. Materials and procedures permit each student to progress in mastering the curriculum at a pace suited to his abilities an d interests. 3. Periodic progress evaluations inform students of their mastery. 4. Students assume responsibility for diagnosing their current needs and abilities, planning and pursuing individual learning activities, and evaluating mastery. 5. Alternative learning activities and materials are available to help students acquire academic skills and content. 6. Students have a choice in selecting educational goals, outcomes and activities. 7. Students help one another to pursue individual goals and cooperate in achieving group goals.